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Gate-to-gate Emissions 

Gas Emissions

Aviation is accountable for around 3% of the total annual Greenhouse Gases emissions from human activities. New technologies help reducing emissions at source, but with the air traffic forecast for the next 30 years, along with the growing concern about global warming, effort from every actor is crucial to address this increasing problem.


The State Of Art
On Average

85g CO2 per passenger per kilometre, 40T fuel burnt & 140T CO2 emitted are respectively the average emissions of the European fleet, the consumption and emission of a simple flight London New-York, according to the ICAO emissions simulator. While manufacturers are taking actions promoting cleaner Aircraft and developing sustainable aviation fuel, the process will take time before these solutions are widely available. A solution that can be applied today, is needed. Some believe, that the only way that aviation globally can achieve net zero carbon emissions by 2050, would be to stop flying.


We are convinced that there is a future for aviation, and that it
brings with it a wealth of benefits.

Analysis of the gate-to-gate
Greenhouse gases emissions
processes are crucial to
developing pragmatic carbon
(and non-carbon GHG)

Additional work is needed to assess more accurately the aviation contribution to global warming, to better regulate emissions and find new solutions.

What are the Gate-to-gate Greenhouse
emissions processes ?

A flight is divided into five operational phases: Taxiing, Take-off, Cruise, Idle and Landing. Fuel burnt in all the flight stages releases different pollutants, such as CO2 and NOx but also soot particles. Through complex condensation processes, contrails may also form and develop into general cloudiness. While the CO2 effect on climate change is well known, the scientific understanding of non-CO2 emissions is still limited, and more research is needed on this area. Some estimates say that at high altitudes,non-CO2 emissions could be comparable, if not stronger, to the CO2 effect.

Soot: when released at high altitudes where the temperature is generally around -50°C, droplets of water accumulate around the soot and form ice. This can be observed as contrails, which themselves can amplify the Greenhouse effect.

NOx: contributes to the destruction of methane, and the formation of ozone. As both methane and ozone contribute to global warming, NOx emissions may be considered as having a non-negligeable impact on climate change.

For more than 15 years Envisa has supported European organizations (European Commission, EUROCONTROL & EASA) in the development, validation, maintenance and training for a European aviation environmental tool set which is used internationally, through the ICAO CAEP process, to determine future regulations and policy.

Envisa has at its disposal, globally endorsed tools, methods and datasets that facilitate full environmental impact assessment of aviation’s impact on climate change (emissions, contrails, interdependency, CBA, etc.).


We collaborate with ambitious
institutions and people

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